Recording of pig neuronal activity in the comparative context of the awake human brain

Dobariya A., El Ahmadieh T.Y., Good L.B., Hernandez-Reynoso A.G., Jakkamsetti V., Brown R., Dunbar M., Ding K., Luna J., Kallem R.R., Putnam W.C., Shelton J.M., Evers B.M., Azami A., Geramifard N., Cogan S.F., Mickey B., and Pascual J.M. Recording of pig neuronal activity in the comparative context of the awake human brain. Sci Rep, 12, 15503 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-19688-2

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Pig Neuronal Activity Figure 7

ABSTRACT: Gyriform mammals display neurophysiological and neural network activity that other species exhibit only in rudimentary or dissimilar form. However, neural recordings from large mammals such as the pig can be anatomically hindered and pharmacologically suppressed by anesthetics. This curtails comparative inferences. To mitigate these limitations, we set out to modify electrocorticography, intracerebral depth and intracortical recording methods to study the anesthetized pig. In the process, we found that common forms of infused anesthesia such as pentobarbital or midazolam can be neurophysiologic suppressants acting in dose-independent fashion relative to anesthetic dose or brain concentration…

Behavioral paradigm for the evaluation of stimulation-evoked somatosensory perception thresholds in rats

Behavioral paradigm for the evaluation of Fig1

Smith T.J., Wu Y., Cheon C., Khan A.A., Srinivasan H., Capadona J.R., Cogan S.F., Pancrazio J.J., Engineer C.T. and Hernandez-Reynoso A.G. Behavioral paradigm for the evaluation of stimulation-evoked somatosensory perception thresholds in rats. Front. Neurosci. 17:1202258 (2023). doi: 10.3389/fnins.2023.1202258

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ABSTRACT: Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the somatosensory cortex via penetrating microelectrode arrays (MEAs) can evoke cutaneous and proprioceptive sensations for restoration of perception in individuals with spinal cord injuries. However, ICMS current amplitudes needed to evoke these sensory percepts tend to change over time following implantation. Animal models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which these changes occur and aid in the development of new engineering strategies to mitigate such changes. Non-human primates are commonly the animal of choice for investigating ICMS, but ethical concerns exist regarding their use. Rodents are a preferred animal model due to their availability, affordability, and ease of handling, but there are limited choices of behavioral tasks for investigating ICMS. In this study, we investigated the application of an innovative behavioral go/no-go paradigm capable of estimating ICMS-evoked sensory perception thresholds in freely moving rats. We divided animals into two groups, one receiving ICMS and a control group receiving auditory tones…

Chronic Stability of Local Field Potentials Using Amorphous Silicon Carbide Microelectrode Arrays Implanted in the Rat Motor Cortex

Jeakle E.N., Abbott J.R., Usoro J.O., Wu Y., Haghighi P., Radhakrishna R., Sturgill B.S., Nakajima S., Thai T.T.D., Pancrazio J.J., Cogan S.F., Hernandez-Reynoso A.G. Chronic Stability of Local Field Potentials Using Amorphous Silicon Carbide Microelectrode Arrays Implanted in the Rat Motor Cortex. Micromachines. 2023; 14(3):680. https://doi.org/10.3390/mi14030680

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Chronic Stability of Local Field Potentials Fig1

ABSTRACT: Intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) of the somatosensory cortex via penetrating microelectrode arrays (MEAs) can evoke cutaneous and proprioceptive sensations for restoration of perception in individuals with spinal cord injuries. However, ICMS current amplitudes needed to evoke these sensory percepts tend to change over time following implantation. Animal models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which these changes occur and aid in the development of new engineering strategies to mitigate such changes. Non-human primates are commonly the animal of choice for investigating ICMS, but ethical concerns exist regarding their use. Rodents are a preferred animal model due to their availability, affordability, and ease of handling, but there are limited choices of behavioral tasks for investigating ICMS. In this study, we investigated the application of an innovative behavioral go/no-go paradigm capable of estimating ICMS-evoked sensory perception thresholds in freely moving rats. We divided animals into two groups, one receiving ICMS and a control group receiving auditory tones…

Influence of Implantation Depth on the Performance of Intracortical Probe Recording Sites

Influence of Implantation Depth Fig6

Usoro J.O., Dogra K., Abbott J.R., Radhakrishna R., Cogan S.F., Pancrazio J.J., Patnaik S.S. Influence of Implantation Depth on the Performance of Intracortical Probe Recording Sites. Micromachines (Basel). 2021 Sep 27;12(10):1158. doi: 10.3390/mi12101158. PMID: 34683209; PMCID: PMC8539313.

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ABSTRACT: Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) enable the recording of electrical activity from cortical neurons which has implications for basic neuroscience and neuroprosthetic applications. The design space for MEA technology is extremely wide where devices may vary with respect to the number of monolithic shanks as well as placement of microelectrode sites. In the present study, we examine the differences in recording ability between two different MEA configurations: single shank (SS) and multi-shank (MS), both of which consist of 16 recording sites implanted in the rat motor cortex. We observed a significant difference in the proportion of active microelectrode sites over the 8-week indwelling period, in which SS devices exhibited a consistent ability to record activity, in contrast to the MS arrays which showed a marked decrease in activity within 2 weeks post-implantation…

Reactive Amine Functionalized Microelectrode Arrays Provide Short-Term Benefit but Long-Term Detriment to In Vivo Recording Performance

“Brandon S. SturgillAna G. Hernandez-ReynosoLindsey N. DruschelThomas J. SmithPierce E. BoucherGeorge F. HoeferlinTeresa Thuc Doan ThaiMadison S. JiangJordan L. HessNeeha N. AlamDhariyat M. MenendezJonathan L. DuncanStuart F. CoganJoseph J. Pancrazio*, and Jeffrey R. Capadona* “Reactive Amine Functionalized Microelectrode Arrays Provide Short-Term Benefit but Long-Term Detriment to In Vivo Recording Performance”. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2024, 7, 2, 1052–1063. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsabm.3c01014

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ABSTRACT: Intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are used for recording neural signals. However, indwelling devices result in chronic neuroinflammation, which leads to decreased recording performance through degradation of the device and surrounding tissue. Coating the MEAs with bioactive molecules is being explored to mitigate neuroinflammation. Such approaches often require an intermediate functionalization step such as (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), which serves as a linker. However, the standalone effect of this intermediate step has not been previously characterized. 

The effect of a Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP) coating on the chronic recording performance of planar silicon intracortical microelectrode arrays

Ana G. Hernandez-Reynoso, Brandon S. Sturgill, George F. Hoeferlin, Lindsey N. Druschel, Olivia K. Krebs, Dhariyat M. Menendez, Teresa T.D. Thai, Thomas J. Smith, Jonathan Duncan, Jichu Zhang, Gaurav Mittal, Rahul Radhakrishna, Mrudang Spandan Desai, Stuart F. Cogan, Joseph J. Pancrazio, Jeffrey R. Capadona. “In Vivo Characterization of Intracortical Probes with Focused Ion Beam-Etched Nanopatterned Topographies “. Biomaterials, Volume 303, 2023, 122351, ISSN 0142-9612, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2023.122351.

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ABSTRACT: Intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are used to record neural activity. However, their implantation initiates a neuroinflammatory cascade, involving the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, leading to interface failure. Here, we coated commercially-available MEAs with Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP), to mitigate oxidative stress. First, we assessed the in vitro cytotoxicity of modified sample substrates. Then, we implanted 36 rats with uncoated, MnTBAP-coated (“Coated”), or (3-Aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES)-coated devices – an intermediate step in the coating process. 

Antioxidant Dimethyl Fumarate Temporarily but Not Chronically Improves Intracortical Microelectrode Performance

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ABSTRACT: Intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) can be used in a range of applications, from basic neuroscience research to providing an intimate interface with the brain as part of a brain-computer interface (BCI) system aimed at restoring function for people living with neurological disorders or injuries. Unfortunately, MEAs tend to fail prematurely, leading to a loss in functionality for many applications. An important contributing factor in MEA failure is oxidative stress resulting from chronically inflammatory-activated microglia and macrophages releasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) around the implant site. Antioxidants offer a means for mitigating oxidative stress and improving tissue health and MEA performance.

In Vivo Characterization of Intracortical Probes with Focused Ion
Beam-Etched Nanopatterned Topographies

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ABSTRACT: Intracortical microelectrodes (IMEs) are an important part of interfacing with the central nervous system (CNS) and recording neural signals. However, recording electrodes have shown a characteristic steady decline in recording performance owing to chronic neuroinflammation. The topography of implanted devices has been explored to mimic the nanoscale three-dimensional architecture of the extracellular matrix. Our previous work used histology to study the implant sites of non-recording probes and showed that a nanoscale topography at the probe surface mitigated the neuroinflammatory response compared to probes with smooth surfaces.

Influence of Implantation Depth on the Performance of Intracortical Probe Recording Sites

Kim H-J., Clement R.S., Bagwell R.B., Tirko N.N., Shih Y-Y., Lee S-H. Direct Mapping of the Nucleus Accumbens Core and Shell using Deep Brain Stimulation with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Rats. Proc. Intl. Soc. Mag. Reason. Med. 2021 #2944. 

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Difference between nucleus accumbens Fig 3

ABSTRACT: The nucleus accumbens (NAc) has a significant role in the cognitive processing of motivation, addiction, reward and reinforcement. Simultaneous Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)-fMRI is a powerful tool for mapping functional connectivity and exploring neuromodulatory mechanism of DBS invivo By using MR-compatible and flexible multichannel neural probe we performed site-selective stimulations of NAc to dissect the functional networks of its core and shell substructures. Such advantages allows systematic and functional in vivo study of differences between NAc core and shell.

Conference Publications

Ultrasonic vibration of neural implants decreases insertion force, improving implant accuracy and decreasing insertion-based tissue damage​

2022 Gordon Conference poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

BRAIN Initiative Meeting 2023 – Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Insertion Decreases Insertion Force of Metal Cannula for Improved Targeting of Subcortical Infusions

2020 BRAIN Investigators Meeting Poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

Neuroscience 2022- Delivery of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound in the Cortex to Improve Longevity and Performance of Neural Interfaces 

2022 Gordon Conference poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

Insertion of Planar and 3D Matrix-style Electrode Arrays Using Ultrasonic Vibration Decreases Electrode Shank Damage While Maintaining Electrode Recording Integrity

2020 BRAIN Investigators Meeting Poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

2022 Gordon Conference – Microelectrode Array Insertion System Using Ultrasonic Vibration to Improve IInsertion MEchanics and Reduce Tissue Dimpling and Trauma in the Cortex

2022 Gordon Conference poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

2020 BRAIN Initiative Conference – Improved Insertion of Floating Microelectrode Arrays in Brain with an Ultrasonic Vibration Insertion System

2020 BRAIN Investigators Meeting Poster_ NeuralGlider Inserter

Neural Implant Insertion System Using Ultrasonic Micro-Vibration ​to Improve Penetrating MicroElectrode Array Insertion Mechanics: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

SFN2018_ActuatedMedical_NeuralGlider Inserter

Penetrating Microelectrode Array Inserter Utilizing Ultrasonic Vibration to Reduce Insertion Force and Brain Dimpling​

Penetrating Microelectrode Array Inserter Utilizing Ultrasonic Vibration to Reduce Insertion Force and Brain Dimpling